It adopts laws and declarations on policy changes. Just like in 2004 all the main parties (Homeland Union, Socialdemocrats, Liberals) support EU membership. Hungary’s currency is Hungarian Forint (HUG). The Commissioner nominated by Lithuania to the European Commission is Virginijus Sinkevičius, who is responsible for Environment, Oceans and Fisheries. The Czech Republic is a member country of the EU since May 1, 2004 with its geographic size of 78,868 km², and population number 10,538,275, as per 2015. At the same time higher education is valued. Sweden’s currency is the Swedish Krona (SEK). Lithuania has been complaining about what it called the "geopolitical project" for years, saying it was designed to stop EU firms in the neighbourhood from diversifying energy supplies, by flooding the market with cheap electricity. Council meetings are regularly attended by representatives from the Lithuanian government, depending on the policy area being addressed. The capital is Vilnius. Lithuania was invited to begin negotiations to join the EU in December 1999 at a European Council summit in Helsinki and was formally invited to join the EU in December 2002 at a summit in Copenhagen . Cyprus’ currency is Euro (€) since it became a member of the Eurozone on January 1, 2008. The political system is a parliamentary republic. Lithuania was a powerful empire that dominated much of eastern Europe in the 14th–16th centuries before becoming part of the Polish-Lithuanian confederation for the next two centuries. This will be more conservative than its centre-left predecessor. Instead, its work is led by the country holding the Council presidency, which rotates every 6 months. Its capital is Vilnius and the official language is Lithuanian. Specific rules: In Lithuania, the EU Blue Card is issued or renewed for a period of three years. The political system is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. The political system in Slovakia is a parliamentary republic. Start tourism Lithuania and explore one of the most beautiful countries in Europe. SportsbookRatings.eu is an award-winning sportsbookreview portal website. AIR AND CLIMATE. Lithuania travel is your official tourism gateway to Lithuania. There are 11 members of the European Parliament from Lithuania. Engineered by: EEA Web Team. The capital of Lithuania is Vilnius . However, five of them are in the process of integrating the EU legislation into national law, while two others are potential candidates, which have yet not fulfilled all the requirements for EU membership. Ireland is a member country of the EU since January 1, 1973 with its geographic size of 69,797 km², and population number 4,628,949, as per 2015. The Danish comprise 1.1% of the total EU population. Austria holds 18 seats in the European Parliament, while it held the revolving presidency of the Council of the EU twice, once in 1998 and in 2006. The political system in Bulgaria is a parliamentary republic. Lithuania has the lowest rate of people without or with low qualifications in the EU (5.2% against 21.8% in the EU-28 in 2018). Category. Its capital is Valletta and the official language is Maltese. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €678,572 billion, as per 2015. Lithuania has the 9th highest share of the population aged 25-64 with high level qualifications in the EU (41.7% against 32.2% in the EU-28). Under the current law, passed by the previous parliament, one person is not allowed to … Bulgaria is not a member country of the Schengen Area. Find out who these MEPs are. The EU acts in a variety of policy areas, from consumer protection to security and defence. Germany’s currency is Euro (€) since it became a member of the Eurozone on January 1, 1999. Romania is not a member country of the Schengen Area. Slovakia is a member country of the EU since May 1, 2004 with its geographic size of 49,035 km², and population number 5,421,349, as per 2015. In order for the EU to adopt policies that concern defence and foreign affairs, all member states must agree unanimously. The political system is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Its capital is Warsaw and the official language is Polish. Centre Party “Welfare Lithuania” Leader: Naglis Puteikis Orientation: National-conservative EP Affiliation: →ECR (intention to join ECR) EU Stance: Neutral towards EU integration (Chapel Hill data) Note: The party ran as part of the Centro partija-Tautininkai (CP-T) list in the 2020 national parliament election. World-famous companies have already set up their representative offices in Lithuania and are successfully operating:Western Union, Barсlays, NASDAQ, Thermofisher Scientific, IKEA, Lidl. The comparative data of the European Banking Authority (EBA) for the third quarter of 2019 show that the Lithuanian banks included in the EBA sample were the most efficient in the entire banking system of the EU countries. EFTA stands for the European Free Trade Association. Lithuania European market observatory for fisheries and aquaculture products COUNTRY PROFILE LITHUANIA IN THE WORLD AND IN THE EU 2017, sources: Eurostat and FAO Lithuania is a minor EU producer of aquaculture products. Poland is a member country of the EU since May 1, 2004 with its geographic size of 612,679 km², and population number 38,005,614, as per 2015. In terms of imports, 69% come from EU Member States (Germany 12%, Poland 11% and Latvia 7%), while outside the EU 15% come from Russia and 3% from China. Romania holds 32 seats in the European Parliament and will hold the revolving presidency of the Council of the EU for the first time in 2019. Its capital is Tallinn and the official language is Estonian. EASA | European Union Aviation Safety Agency: The European Union Authority for aviation safety. EASA Member States. The Italians comprise 12% of the total EU population. Capital: Vienna. Gradually, more countries decided to join. The Lithuanian economy and its development over the last ten years can best be described with reference to three features that set Lithuania apart from other EU Member States: 1) Lithuania's gross domestic product (GDP) is among the lowest in the European Union. Croatia is a member country of the EU since July 1, 2013 with its geographic size of 56,594 km², and population number 4,225,316, as per 2015. Men in west London have highest male life expectancy in EU. Luxembourg holds 6 seats in the European Parliament and held the revolving presidency of the Council of the EU 12 times between 1960 and 2015. Italy’s currency is Euro (€) since it became a member of the Eurozone on January 1, 1999. The Netherlands is a member country of the Schengen Area since March 26, 1995. Netherlands’ currency is Euro (€) since it became a member of the Eurozone on January 1, 1999. On this page you find all EEA content that is exclusively about Lithuania. This advisory body is consulted on proposed laws, to ensure these laws take account of the perspective from each region of the EU. Lithuania is a country in Eastern Europe and western Russia. Poland’s currency is the Polish Zloty (PLN). Austria’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €337.162 billion, as per 2015. We can say that the issue of working time/duration of work has been quite little explored in Lithuania; apart from the survey on the application of working time, as carried out by the Lithuanian Statistics (Lietuvos statistikos departamentas, STD) in 2004 and data provided by the Eurostat and European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS), there are actually no other information sources in Lithuania enabling assessment of work time. Intra-EU trade accounts for 59% of Lithuania’s exports (Latvia 10%, Poland 8% and Germany 7%), while outside the EU 14% go to Russia and 5% to the United States. Integration Strategy. It is the largest and most populous of the three Baltic states.The country is bordered by Belarus, Latvia, Poland, and Russia (Kaliningrad) and it shares a maritime border with Sweden. Therefore, the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force in 2009, providing the EU with modern institutions and more efficient working methods. In addition, the EFTA States have added substantive rules and commitments on services, investment and/or public procurement to the agreements as a response on globalization. Malta holds 6 seats in the European Parliament and will hold the revolving presidency of the Council of the EU for the first time in 2017. The following link is a redirection to an external websiteCurrent presidency of the Council of the EU. The EU citizens who live in the UK (including Lithuanian nationals) have no reason to worry – their status will not change until the UK remains an EU member state. the Commission or Parliament). The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €52.112 billion, as per 2015. Give feedback about this website or report a problem, Institutions, bodies & agencies – contact & visit details, The following link is a redirection to an external website, Public contracts in the EU – rules and guidelines, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in PPS, Current presidency of the Council of the EU, Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), European Economic and Social Committee (EESC), European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS), The European Data Protection Board (EDPB), Total EU spend in Lithuania –  € 2.071 billion, Total contribution to EU budget –  € 0.356 billion. The French comprise 13.1% of the total EU population. Estep (2016), Evaluation of results, efficiency and impact of the 2007–2013 measure to facilitate social dialogue in Lithuania : Summary of the final report, Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Lithuania, Vilnius. In 1950, the European Coal and Steel Community began the uniting of European countries economically and politically to gain lasting peace. The euro is coded as EUR and used with the sign €. Denmark is a member country of the Schengen Area since March 25, 2001. Its capital is Berlin and the official language is German. We are part of a unique economic and political family, which consists of 28 member countries. As for fishery production, in 2017 it ranked 14th among EU producing countries. During these 6 months, ministers from that country's government chair and help determine the agenda of Council meetings in each policy area, and facilitate dialogue with the other EU institutions. Its capital is Ljubljana and the official language is Slovenian. Our reviewers are known for writing unbiased, detailed rankings on of online Lithuanians sportsbook choices. National institutions, municipalities and educational institutions all share responsibility for the quality of the education provided. Lithuania’s currency is Euro (€) since it became a member of the Eurozone on January 1, 2014. Second, Lithuania was relatively successful in containing the pandemic and was therefore able to avoid compromising its long-standing interests in exchange for short-term support. European Union Aviation Safety Agency ... Lithuania; Lithuania. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €163,947 billion, as per 2015. If the employment contract is of shorter duration, the EU Blue Card shall be issued for the duration of the contract plus three months. With the fundamentals of Lithuania’s approach to European politics seemingly immutable, Vilnius is likely to remain a passive if permissive actor in the EU’s post-pandemic politics. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €207.220 billion, as per 2015. Lithuania’s economy has been expanding steadily, with an average GDP growth rate of 3.1% between 2014 and 2018, outperforming the EU average (2.1%) despite a … Welcome! The Parliament is a single-chamber legislative body. Action of the Council of Europe in Lithuania Prevention of torture The European Committee for the prevention of torture visits places of detention (for juvenile or immigration detainees, police stations, psychiatric hospitals) in order to assess how persons deprived of their liberty are treated. Its capital is Bucharest and the official language is Romanian. Its currency is € (Euro), from Belgium became a member of the Eurozone on January 1, 1999. The standard period of validity in Lithuania is: Three years. In 1993, the ‘Single Market’ was completed with the four freedoms: The 1990s were also a decade of treaties: the ‘Maastricht’ Treaty on the European Union in 1993 and the treaty of Amsterdam in 1999. Ireland is not a member country of the Schengen Area. The European Commission may launch an infringement procedure against Lithuania because of its cap on forest ownership, the Environment Ministry has said. The Republic of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuva or Lietuvos Respublika ) is a republic in north-eastern Europe.Lithuania is one of the three Baltic States along the Baltic Sea, it shares borders with Latvia to the north, Belarus to the southeast, Poland to the south, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia to the southwest. Slovenia is a member country of the EU since May 1, 2004 with its geographic size of 20,273 km², and population number 2,062,874, as per 2015. With an average regional score of 66 out of 100, Western Europe and the EU are doing far better than other parts of the globe. The local government elections are to be held on 3 March 2019, while the presidential election will take place on 12 May 2019 and the European Parliament elections in Lithuania will be organised on 26 May 2019 Later, in 1986 the Single European Act was signed, which also created the ‘Single Market’. The EURES Lithuania team would like to invite everyone to take part in the European Job Day "Lithuania is waiting The Irish comprise 0.9% of the total EU population. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €1.081trillion. The Maltese comprise 0.1% of the total EU population. Luxembourg is a member country of the EU since January 1, 1958 with its geographic size of 2,586 km², and population number 562,958, as per 2015. The political system is a parliamentary republic. Spain’s currency is Euro (€) and became a member of the Eurozone since January 1, 1999. Its capital is Helsinki and the official languages in Finland are Finnish and Swedish. Latvia’s currency is Euro (€) since it became a member of the Eurozone on January 1, 2014. Cyprus is a member country of the EU since May 1, 2004 with its geographic size of 9,251 km², and population number 847,008, as per 2015. Lithuania , officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. Its capital is Vilnius and the official language is Lithuanian. Presently, the currency used in Lithuania is the euro. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €20.461 billion, as per 2015. Slovenia is a member country of the Schengen Area since December 21, 2007. Get to know the wonderful nature and rich history of Lithuania, try plenty of activities and discover Lithuania with Lithuania travel guide. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €2.184trillion, as per 2015. The political system is a semi-presidential republic. This brought a good period for the economy, as the EU countries stopped charging customs duties when trading with each other. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €44,162 billion, as per 2015. Lithuanians comprise 0.6% of the total EU population. Destination Lithuania, an Eastern European country with a coastline at the Baltic Sea in west. The EU’s common currency is the euro. The Spanish comprise 9.1% of the total EU population. Slovaks comprise 2.2% of the total EU population. Sweden is a member country of the Schengen Area since March 25, 2001. Lithuania is located on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea and on the southeast of Denmark and Sweden. (Wikipedia). Rural Development in Lithuania is managed nationally through one Rural Development Programme (RDP), funded under the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) and national contributions. Poland is a member country of the Schengen Area since December 21, 2007. It is a country proud of the Lithuanian language and its old traditions. Lithuania is a parliamentary republic with a head of government - the prime minister - and a head of state - the president - who appoints the prime minister. It lies on both sides of the religious frontier between the Catholic and Orthodox churches. How much each EU country pays into the EU budget is calculated fairly, according to means. As of 1 January 2017, the population of the EU is about 511.6 million people. This weekend it became clear that Poland is working on the integration project with Lithuania. France’s currency is Euro (€) since it became a member of the Eurozone on January 1, 1999. Malta is a member country of the Schengen Area since December 21, 2007. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €1.636 trillion, as per 2015. Spain is a member country of the Schengen Area since March 26, 1995. Find out more about how Lithuania benefits from EU funding. Spain is a member country of the EU since January 1, 1986. Lithuania is a country in Europe and one of the three Baltic States. Portugal is a member country of the Schengen Area since March 26, 1995. Hence, it would create the new Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The country is divided into 60 municipalities, with directly-elected mayors. FISHING FLEET It should be noted, Poland and Lithuania have been on the forefront of the Belarus situation. Its capital is Brussels and the official languages in Belgium are Dutch, French, and German. Despite a recent uptick in infections, Lithuania remains among the best performers in the EU in terms of both cases and deaths per capita. Presently the increase of religious extremism in the Middle East, as well as in various other countries and regions around the world, has lead to wars and turmoil, which has pushed many people to flee their home countries and seek refuge in Europe. The political system in Belgium is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Finland holds 13 seats in the European Parliament and held the revolving presidency of the Council of the EU twice, in 1999 and 2006. In 1995, the EU further enlarged with three more members joining: Austria, Finland, and Sweden. Date: 18 March 2011: Source: Own work This W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Adobe Illustrator. Its capital is Stockholm and the official language is Swedish. Greeks comprise 2.1% of the total EU population. The political system is  a semi-presidential republic. Lithuania has the lowest rate of people without or with low qualifications in the EU (5.2% against 21.8% in the EU-28 in 2018). In Lithuania, the term "domestic violence" is used. Estonia is a member country of the Schengen Area since December 21, 2007. Lithuania’s currency is Euro (€) since it became a member of the Eurozone on January 1, 2014. The Germans comprise 16% of the total EU population. The new Soviet parliament acknowledged Lithuania’s independence on September 6, 1991. This vector image includes elements that have been taken or adapted from this file: BlankMap-World6.svg (by Canuckguy). The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €214.623 billion, as per 2015. France holds 74 seats in the European Parliament and held the revolving presidency of the Council of the EU 13 times between 1959 and 2008. PVM: Lithuania … Currently, 23 countries located in the continent of Europe, are not part of the European Union. Its capital is Dublin and the official languages in Ireland are Irish and English. Lithuania has 9 representatives on the European Economic and Social Committee. Domestic environment shall mean the environment comprising the persons currently or previously linked by marriage, partnership, affinity or other close relations, also the persons having a common domicile and a common household. In 1957, the Treaty of Rome created the European Economic Community (EEC) or the ‘Common Market’. European Union (EU), international organization comprising 27 European countries and governing common economic, social, and security policies. Luxembourg is a member country of the Schengen Area since March 26, 1995. Unfortunately, the idea of unity in the EU is not justified in all spheres. In the 2000s, the euro became the new currency for many Europeans, and during the following decade, more countries adopted the euro (€). The official language in Spain is Spanish. Lithuania became a full-fledged member of the European Union on 1 May 2004. Specific rules: In Lithuania, the EU Blue Card is issued or renewed for a period of three years. Lithuania’s presidency of the Council of the European Union in 2013 was one of the country’s most important contributions to the EU policymaking and implementation. Latvians comprise 0.4% of the total EU population. The political divisions, during the 2000s, between the east and west Europe finally healed and 10 more new countries joined the EU in 2004, followed by Bulgaria and Romania which joined in 2007. Lithuania unveils EU presidency logo 13. Croatia’s currency is Croatian Kuna HRK. Finland’s currency is Euro (€) since it became a member of the Eurozone on January 1, 1999. All Rights Reserved. Bulgaria holds 17 seats in the European Parliament and will hold the revolving presidency of the Council of the EU for the first time in 2018. In 2008, a financial crisis hits the global economy. The Czech Republic holds 21 seats in the European Parliament and held the revolving presidency of the Council of the EU once in 2009. The colors of the Lithuanian flag are yellow (at … Lithuania / Alytus / Ukmergė / Vilnius / Politics and Reforms Mayoral and municipal elections in Lithuania to take place on Sunday. Lithuania is a parliamentary republic with a head of government - the prime minister - and a head of state - the president - who appoints the prime minister. To integrate or foster the social inclusion of these populations with non-EU background, Lithuania’s current policy is based on its 2018–2020 Action Plan on the Integration of Foreigners into Society.It includes provisions regarding the allocation of resources, the cooperation among state institutions and service providers, as well as the monitoring migrant integration. The country also faces Lithuania takes over the EU presidency on 1 July. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €17,421 billion, as per 2015. France is a member country of the EU since January 1, 1958 with its geographic size of 633,187 km², and population number 66,415,161, as per 2015. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €37.124 billion, as per 2015. EU countries and Schengen countries are both European countries. Its capital is Zagreb and the official language in Croatia is Croatian. European countries started to cooperate economically since 1951, when only states such as Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Germany, The Netherlands and Italy participated. At the same time, the position of the EU is perceived controversial in the Baltic States, in particular in Lithuania. Its currency is the Danish Krone (DKK). France is a member country of the Schengen Area since March 26, 1995. Euro area member since 1 January 1999. Lithuania's new centre-right government assumed office on Friday, led by Prime Minister Ingrida Simonyte who has appointed the most gender-balanced cabinet in the eastern European Union. Denmark holds 13 seats in the European Parliament and held the revolving presidency of the Council of the EU 7 times between 1973 and 2012. Only when Lithuania becomes strong and prosperous, will the EU consider it a full member and not a burden for the rest of the union. Other products which contain information on Lithuania, among others, may be found through our global search . Western Europe and EU: stagnating anti-corruption efforts and weakening democratic institutions News • 29 January 2019. Lithuania, country of northeastern Europe, the southernmost and largest of the three Baltic states. Luxembourgers comprise 0.1% of the total EU population. Romania is a member country of the EU since January 1, 2007 with its geographic size of 238,391 km², and population number 19,870,647, as per 2015.The Romanians comprise 3.9% of the total EU population. In 2013, Croatia became the 28th member to enter the EU. Belgium holds 21 seats in the European Parliament and held the revolving presidency of the Council of the EU 12 times between 1958 and 2010. Slovakia’s currency is € (Euro) since it became a member of the Eurozone on January 1, 2009. Hungary is a member country of the Schengen Area since December21, 2007. Germany is a member country of the Schengen Area since March 26, 1995. The country is divided into 60 municipalities, with directly-elected mayors. The political system is a semi-presidential republic. Lithuania already positions itself as a European FinTech hub. Learn more about the EU in this article. This advisory body – representing employers, workers and other interest groups – is consulted on proposed laws, to get a better idea of the possible changes to work and social situations in member countries. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €160.353 billion, as per 2015. The Polish comprise 7.5% of the total EU population. 1920 - … More figures on the EU budget, revenue and spending: The money paid into the EU budget by Lithuania helps fund programmes and projects in all EU countries - like building roads, subsidising researchers and protecting the environment. The Netherlands is a member country of the EU since January 1, 1958 with its geographic size of 41,542 km², and population number 16,900,726, as per 2015. The Seimas (Parliament) forms education policy at the national level. Copyright © 2013 - 2020 SchengenVisaInfo.com. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €266.244 billion, as per 2015. Candidate countries on the road to EU membership: Potential candidates to become EU member states: The continental territories of the member states of the European Union (European Communities pre-1993), animated in order of accession. Its capital is Nicosia and the official language in Cyprus is Greek. Cypriots comprise 0.2% of the total EU population. Hungary is a member country of the EU since May 1, 2004 with its geographic size of 93,011 km², and population number 9,855,571, as per 2015. Lithuania Embarks on Independence and Democracy Lithuania's independence was quickly recognized by major European and other nations, including the United States. The political system is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. It is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. EASA. Finland is a member country of the Schengen Area since March 25, 2001. Belgians comprise 2.2% of the total EU population. Official EU language (s): German. The political system is a parliamentary republic. In June 2002 and February 2003 the Lithuanian Parliament amended Lithuania's laws on referendums. None of these countries are part of the European Union, but aside of Switzerland, others are all part of the European Economic Area. These countries operate as a single state with no border controls required when traveling within the countries, but have the same international border control rules. This would also mean that both nations will be leaving the EU. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €37.124 billion, as per 2015. Now is the best time for Lithuania to adjust or change its politics. As Lithuania's "embassy to the EU", its main task is to ensure that the country's interests and policies are pursued as effectively as possible in the EU. Slovenia’s currency is Euro (€) since it became a member of the Eurozone on January 1, 2007. The European Union’s aim back in the days was to end the frequent bloody wars between neighbour states that culminated in the Second World War. Latvia is a member country of the Schengen Area since December 21, 2007. Latest business news about Lithuania and the European Union. Visa for Cultural / Sports / Religious Event, United Kingdom (left EU on January 31, 2020). Germany holds 96 seats in the European Parliament and held the revolving presidency of the Council of the EU 11 times between 1958 and 2007. Lithuania is one of the Baltic states. Belgium is also a member state of the Schengen Area since March 26, 1995. Its capital is Bratislava and the official language is Slovak. Lithuania has been a member of WTO since 31 May 2001. 1915 - Lithuania, under Russian rule since the late 18th century, is occupied by German troops during the First World War. Lithuania and 12 other EU member states have called on Brussels to help the six Eastern Partnership countries – Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus, Moldova, Azerbaijan, and Armenia – … Lithuania is a member country of the EU since May 1, 2004 with its geographic size of 65,286 km², and population number 2,921,262, as per 2015. Portugal is a member country of the EU since January 1, 1986 with its geographic size of 92,226 km², and population number 10,374,822, as per 2015. Where is Lithuania? EUobserver talks to the country's leading politicians about its austerity policy, its euro plans and relations with eastern neighbours. Romania’s currency is Romanian Leu (RON). If the employment contract is of shorter duration, the EU Blue Card shall be issued for the duration of the contract plus three months. Slovenia holds 8 seats in the European Parliament and held the revolving presidency of the Council of the EU once in 2008. Expert warns of ‘huge inequality’ in UK capital, while Lithuanian males live shortest lives Lithuania Legal basis. Estonia holds 6 seats in the European Parliament and will hold the revolving presidency of the Council of the EU for the first time in the first half of 2017. Lithuania has 9 representatives on the European Committee of the Regions, the EU's assembly of regional and local representatives. Vilnius is the capital and largest city.. With the Brexit transition period officially ended, Brits are now treated as third-country nationals and are no longer welcome in many countries. This file was uploaded with Commonist. Slovakia holds 13 seats in the European Parliament and is currently holding the revolving presidency of the Council of the EU for the first time. ‘ huge inequality ’ in UK capital, while Lithuanian males live shortest lives and... 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